Adaptive instruction, Affective models, Cognitive models, Collective tasks, Collective tutoring, Shared mental models, Social models, Team tutoring
Teams and teamwork are ubiquitous in military and civilian organizations. Their importance to organizational success cannot be overstated. This article describes the relationship and effect of three concepts: Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs), shared mental models, and teamwork. The nexus between these concepts is examined to determine its capability to support adaptive instruction of teams, defined here as collectives of interdependent individuals who must communicate and interact with each other in order to perform assigned tasks and missions. An assumption underlying this examination is that augmenting the mental modeling processes of ITS with the mental models shared by members of interdependent teams will allow the considerable and increasingly research-established capabilities of intelligent tutoring of individuals to be applied in training teams. Specifically, we reviewed the learning and performance literature to identify how shared mental models of cognition could be used to enhance the adaptive instruction of teams. Our goal is to develop a methodology to enhance training and educational options for institutions that provide adaptive team instruction at the point-of-need. Toward this end, we discuss the adaptation of the Generalized Intelligent Framework for Tutoring (GIFT), an open source tutoring architecture, to accommodate team models and states. While this article makes a first step toward defining a process for team tutoring, challenges remain. Team tutors must have the ability to manage uncertainty and the dynamic nature of team interaction and communication in order to make effective and timely decisions that optimize team and team member performance.